Artaxerxes II Mnemon HAKAMANISHIYA King of Persia (404-359BC)
- Born: Abt 436 B.C.
- Died: 358 B.C.
He defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated and killed at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC, and against a revolt of the provincial governors, the satraps (366 - 358). He also became involved in a war with Persia's erstwhile allies, the Spartans, who, under Agesilaus, invaded Asia Minor. To keep the Spartans busy, Artaxerxes subsidized their enemies in Greece - the Athenians, Thebans, and Corinthians, especially - to keep them busy back at home, in what would become known as the Corinthian War. In 386 BC Artaxerxes II stabbed his allies in the back and came to an arrangement with Sparta, and in the Treaty of Antalcidas forced his erstwhile allies to come to terms. This treaty restored control of the Greek cities of Ionia and Aeolis on the Anatolian coast to the Persians, while giving Sparta dominance on the Greek mainland.
Although thus rather successful against the Greeks, Artaxerxes had more trouble with the Egyptians, who had successfully revolted against him at the beginning of his reign. An attempt to reconquer Egypt in 373 BC was completely unsuccessful, but in his waning years the Persians did manage to defeat a joint Egyptian-Spartan effort tto conquer Phoenicia.
Much of Artaxerxes's money was spent on building projects he restored the palace of Darius I at Susa, and also the fortifications including a strong redoubt at the southeast corner of the enclosure and gave Ecbatana a new apadana and sculptures. He seems not to have built much at Persepolis.
Artaxerxes married Queen Stateira of Persia, daughter of Hydarnes III of Persia and Unknown.