|Bernard I CAROLING, King in Italy
Bernard I CAROLING, King in Italy
- Born: Abt 797, Vermandois, Austrasia
- Married: Abt 813
- Died: 17 Apr 818, Milan, Italy
- Buried: St Amrosius, Milan, Italy
Also called Bernard 1er d' ITALIE 1
Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Bernhardus filius Pippini ex concubina". However, other sources do not refer to the fact that he was illegitimate. The question is not beyond doubt. Bernard is named only son of Pippin by Einhard. Regino names "Bernhardus filius Pippin rex Italiæ" when recording his death in 818. Settipani cites a litany of St Gallen which lists Bernard among Carolingians of illegitimate birth. He was brought up at Kloster Fulda. His paternal grandfather sent him back to Italy in autumn 812, granting him the title "rex Langobardorum" in Apr 813. Einhard's Annales that "Walanem filium Bernhardi patruelis sui" was sent to Italy in 812 as guardian for "Bernhardum filium Pippin nepotem suum [Karoli imperatoris]".
He was confirmed 11 Sep 813 at Aix-la-Chapelle as BERNARD I King of Italy, as vassal of the emperor, ruling under the regency of Adalhard abbé de Corbie. Although he swore allegiance to his uncle Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" on the latter's accession in 814, the emperor passed the Ordinatio Imperii in Jul 817 which failed to mention Bernard's royal status, effectively depriving him of any role in government and of his royal title. Bernard rebelled unsuccessfully in Dec 817. He was tricked into returning to France to ask for the emperor's forgiveness at Chalon-sur-Saône, but was taken to Aix-la-Chapelle where he was sentenced to death.
The Annales Xantenses record that "Bernhardus rex Langobardorum" was blinded in 818. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Bernhardus filius Pippini ex concubina" was blinded and died on the third day which followed this. After his death, Italy was once more placed under the direct rule of the emperor. 2
Bernard married Cunigundis DE TOULOUSE, probably daughter of Heribert DE TOULOUSE, about 813. (Cunigundis DE TOULOUSE died after 15 Jun 835.)
Vermandois, Valois & Vexin, & Chaumont-en-Vexin, Ham, Saint-Simon, Sohier-Walincourt, & Fontaine-lès-Gobert, Picardie, Ile-de-France, Champagne, Etienne de Pattou, 2004, p. 3.
Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Medlands: Bernard.