Edward I "Longshanks" PLANTAGENET, King of England
- Born: 17 Jun 1239, Westminster Palace, London, England
- Married (1): 18 Oct 1254, Abbey Of Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile, Spain
- Married (2): 8 Sep 1299, Canterbury Cathedral, Kent, England
- Died: 7 Jul 1307, Burgh-by-Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria, England
- Buried: Westminster Abbey, London, England
The Annals of Tewkesbury record the birth “XIV Kal Jul…Londoniæ apud Westmonasterium” of “filius…Eadwardus” to “regi Henrico Angliæ filio regis Johannis…de regina sua Alienora filia comitis de Provencia”. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "XIV Kal Jul"  of "Edwardum filium suum primogenitum" to "Alienor regina Angliæ". Matthew Paris records that Edward was installed as Duke of Gascony in 1252, after the territory was subdued by Simon de Montfort. Henry III King of England granted “totam terram Vasconie” to “Eudoardo primogenito filio nostro” by charter dated 8 Jun 1252. He was created Earl of Chester 14 Feb 1254. Taken prisoner with his father at the battle of Lewes 14 May 1264 by the rebel barons under Simon de Montfort, he managed to escape 26 May. As a means of making peace, he delivered the earldom of Chester to Simon de Montfort 24 Dec 1264, though it was restored to Edward after the battle of Evesham 4 Aug 1265. He left England in summer 1270 intending to join Louis IX King of France in Tunisia. On learning of the king's death after arriving in Africa, Edward wintered in Sicily with King Charles and the following spring sailed for Palestine, landing at Acre 9 May 1271, but he had insufficient resources to make any headway against the Mameluk Sultan Baibars and signed a peace agreement with the Sultan at Caesarea 22 May 1272. An attempt was made on his life 16 Jun 1272 when an Assassin stabbed him with a poisoned dagger, the after effects of which left Edward seriously ill for several months, and left Acre for England 22 Sep 1272.
He succeeded his father in 1272 as EDWARD I “Longshanks” King of England, when he was in Sicily returning from the Crusade. He arrived back in England in Aug 1274, and was crowned 19 Aug 1274 at Westminster Abbey. A strong king, he increased the power of the crown during his reign at the expense of the barons, probably setting the scene for the problems faced by his weaker son Edward II.
Betrothed (1247) to [Marie] de Brabant, daughter of Henri II of Brabant and his first wife Maria von Staufen... The betrothal of one of the daughters of Duke Henri II to Edward of England is recorded by Matthew Paris. It is not certain that Marie was the daughter in question. However, she is the most likely candidate as her two older sisters were already married and her younger half-sister was only an infant at the time. 1
The Will of King Edward I, written 18 Jun 1272.
In the name, &c. We, Edward, eldest son of the noble King of England, make our Will the Saturday next after Pentecost, in the year of our Lord 1272. First, we bequeath our soul to God, to our Lady, and to all Saints; and our body to be buried where our executors, that is to say, Sir John de Bretagne, Sir William de Valence, Sir Roger de Clifford, Sir Payse de Chautros, Sir Robert de Tiletot, Sir Otes de Graundison, Robert Burnett, and Anthony Bek, shall appoint; who are also to hold the profits of all our lands in England, Ireland, and Gascony, until our children become of age. And if it should so happen (which God forbid!) that our Lord the King, our father, die whilst our children be under age, we will that the realm of England, and all other lands which should descend to our children, remain in the hands of our executors before named, and also in those of our dear father the Archbishop of York, and Sir Rog. and other great men of the kingdom, until they become of full age. And for the dowry of our dear wife Eleanor &c. In testimony of which we have placed our seal to this Will, having requested John Archbishop of Sur, and Vicar of the Holy Church of Jerusalem, and the honorable fathers, Frere Hugh Revel, Master of the Hospital, and Frere Thomas Berard, Master of the Temple, likewise to place their seals in witness hereof. Dated at Acre, the Saturday before named, the 18th June, in the year of the reign of the King our father the 55th. 2
Edward married Infanta doña Leonor DE CASTILLA, daughter of Fernando III "el Santo" ALFONSEZ, King of Castile & Léon, and Jeanne DE DAMMARTIN-PONTHIEU, on 18 Oct 1254 in Abbey Of Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile, Spain. (Leonor DE CASTILLA was born in 1244 in Castile, Spain and died on 29 Nov 1290 in Herdeby, Lincolnshire, England.)
Edward also married Marguerite CAPET de France, daughter of Philippe III "le Hardi" CAPET, King of France, and Marie DE BRABANT, on 8 Sep 1299 in Canterbury Cathedral, Kent, England. (Marguerite CAPET was born in 1279 in Paris, Île-de-France, France and died on 14 Feb 1316/7 in Marlborough Castle, Wiltshire, England.)
Betrothed 12 May 1299.