Infante don Fernando IV "el Ajurno" DE CASTILLA y León
Infanta dona Costança DE PORTUGAL
Infante dom Afonso IV "o Osado" DE PORTUGAL
Infanta doña Beatriz DE CASTILLA y León
Infante don Alfonso XI "el Justo" DE CASTILLA y León
Infanta dona Maria DE PORTUGAL

Infante don Pedro I "el Cruel" DE CASTILLA y León


Family Links

1. Blanche DE BOURBON
0. María DE PADILLA, Mistress

0. Juana DE CASTRO, Mistress
  • Infante don Juan DE CASTILLA
0. Teresa DE AYALA, Mistress
0. Aldonza CORONEL, Mistress
  • Sancho DE CASTILLA y Sandoval

Infante don Pedro I "el Cruel" DE CASTILLA y León

  • Born: 30 Aug 1334, Burgos, Castile
  • Married (1): 3 Jun 1353
  • Died: 22 Mar 1369, Montiel, Ciudad Real, Spain

  Also known as Pedro I "the Cruel" ALFONSEZ, King of Castile & León.

  General Notes:

Compiler's 18 x great-grandfather

  Research Notes:

The Crónica del Rey Alfonso XI records the birth 31 Aug at Burgos of "un fijo varon...Don Pedro" to "la Reyna Doña Maria", 1334 from the context although the text specifies 1333.

He succeeded his father in 1350 as PEDRO I "el Cruel" King of Castile and León. Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that "[el] Infante Don Pedro su fijo primero legitimo heredero, fijo de la Reyna Doña Maria su muger, fija del Rey Don Alfonso de Portugal" succeeded as king after the death of his father.

Betrothed (contract 2 Jan 1345) to Joan of England, daughter of Edward III King of England and his wife Philippa de Hainaut. The marriage contract between "Alfonso...Castellæ Rege...consanguineo nostro...primogenitum dicti regis" and "Rex...Johannam filiam nostram" by charter dated 2 Jan 1345. King Edward III wrote a series of letters relating to the same betrothal dated 30 Aug 1345. King Edward III appointed proxies to ratify the marriage contract between "rege Castellæ...consanguineum nostrum primogenitum dicti regis" and "Johannam filiam nostram" by charter dated 17 Mar 1345 (O.S.). A charter dated 1 Jan 1348 notified "Alfonso...Castellæ...Regi" of arrangements made for the journey of "Edwardus...[rex]...Johannam filiam nostram" to Gascony for her marriage to "primogenito vestro Petro". A charter dated 15 Sep 1348 notified "Alfonso...Castellæ...Regi" of the death of "Johannam filiam nostris...Burdegalis".

Betrothed (contract 1 Jul 1345, contract terminated before 1348) to Infanta doña Blanca de Navarra, daughter of Felipe III "el Bueno" [d'Evreux] King of Navarre & his wife Juana II [de France] Queen of Navarre. The dates of documents which relate to Pedro de Castilla´s betrothal to Joan of England suggest that his betrothal to Blanca de Navarra may have been an alternative, probably short-lived, agreement presumably arranged at a time when relations with England were not proceeding well and that it was soon terminated.

Mistress (1): Supposedly married Maria de Padilla in secret at the time, made public 1362). Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that King Pedro "a Gijón" took "Doña Maria de Padilla...una doncella muy fermosa", went "en casa de Doña Isabel de Meneses muger de Don Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque" and that "Juan Ferrandez de Henestrosa su tio, hermano de Doña Maria Gonzalez su madre" took her to "Sant Fagund", in 1352. Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records the death "en Sevilla de su dolencia" in Jul 1361 of "Doña Maria de Padilla" and her burial "al su Monasterio de Sancta Clara de Estudillo". Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that, after her death, the king announced to "sus Cortes...en Sevilla" that he "se avia desposado por palabras de presente con Doña Maria de Padilla" in the presence of "Don Diego Garcia de Padilla Maestre de Calatrava hermano de la dicha Doña Maria...Juan Ferrandez de Henestrosa tio de la dicha Doña Maria...Juan Alfonso de Mayorga su Chanciller del sello de la poridad é su Escribano...Juan Pérez de Orduña Abad de Santander é su Capellan mayor", all of whom swore to the truth of the king´s assertion, and that this had taken place before he married Blanche de Bourbon who had therefore never been his lawful wife. With today´s hindsight, the king´s declaration does not appear credible, supported as it was by two close relatives of María and by two advisers of the king who would have feared for their lives in case of disobedience. Two other points also seem relevant. Firstly, the king waited until after the deaths of both María herself and Blanche de Bourbon, who would have known the truth of the situation, before making his declaration. Secondly, the issue was never raised at the time of the king´s purported marriage to Juana de Castro in 1354 (see below), when he was only concerned about divorcing Blanche de Bourbon. Nevertheless, after the death of King Pedro, there must have been sufficient indications about the legitimacy of his children by María for the two English princes to have married her two surviving daughters, and for King Enrique III of Castile to have later married the sole heiress of the older daughter in order to close the chapter of the English challenge to his rule. Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that, after this announcement the body of María de Padilla was transferred to "Sevilla...en la capilla de los Reyes...en la Iglesia de Sancta Maria".

Mistress (2): Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that King Pedro in 1354 declared that "él lo mostraria que con derecho se podia partir de la...Doña Blanca, é que non era su muger" in order to marry "Doña Juana de Castro fija de Don Pedro de Castro que decian de la Guerra...muger que fuera de Don Diego de Haro fijo de Don Lope de Haro é nieto de Don Diego Señor de Vizcaya...", persuaded "los Obispos Don Sancho de Avila é Don Juan de Salamanca...con muy grande miedo" to proclaim that "el casamiento que el Rey ficiera con Doña Blanca de Borbon era ninguno", and then married Juana "en la...villa de Cuellar" but left her "otro dia...é nunca vió jamas á la dicha Doña Juana de Castro". Pope Innocent VI reprimanded the bishops and ordered the king to return to Blanche de Bourbon. The testament of "Don Pedro...Rey de Castilla, de Leon...", dated 18 Nov 1362, names his three daughters by María de Padilla as his heirs, and in default "Don Juan mi fijo é de Doña Juana de Castro". Pedro had four illegitimate children by María, declared legitimate and granted the title infante/infanta after the king´s declaration of his marriage to María de Padilla in 1362.

Mistress (3): Florez refers to (without a precise citation reference) a document in the archives of the Duques de Medina Sidonia, dated 1361, which names "D. Fernando fijo de nuestro Señor el Rey y de Doña Maria de Hinestrosa su madre". Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that the king took "Doña Maria González de Henestrosa, muger de Garci-Laso Carrillo hermano [de]...Gomez Carrillo", dated to 1359 from the context.

Mistress (4): Teresa de Ayala. Florez records a donation made to Santo Domingo el Real by "Doña Ines de Ayala" which names "Maria mi nieta fija del Rey D. mi fija Doña Teresa, las Sorores de Santo Domingo el Real", dated 15 Jun 1395. Prioress of Santo Domingo el Real. An epitaph in Santo Domingo el Real records the death 31 Aug 1424 of "Doña Teresa de Ayala, Priora deste Monasterio, hija de D. Diego Gomez de Ayala, Alcalde Mayor de Toledo, y de Doña Ines de Ayala".

Mistress (5): Aldonza Coronel. Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that “Don Juan de la Cerda fijo de Don Luis é Don Alvar Perez de Guzman Señor de Olvera” defected from King Pedro I in 1357 and went to Andalucía, triggered because the king wished to take “la muger de Don Alvar Perez, que era Doña Aldonza Coronel fija de Don Alfonso Ferrandez Coronel, hermana que era de Doña Maria Coronel muger del dicho Don Juan de Cerda”. Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that in 1358 King Pedro captured “Doña Aldonza Coronel...” from “[el] Monasterio de Sancta Clara” in Seville, adding that they had met when she had sought a royal pardon for her husband during a truce in the war between Castile and Aragon, and placed her “en la Torre del Oro, que es en la tarazana”.

Mistress (6): Isabel de Sandoval. Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records the birth in Sep 1363 “en Alamazan” of “un fijo de una dueña que tenia que decian Doña Isabel...Don Sancho”, adding that the king wished the child to be his heir and that he would marry the child´s mother.

His reign was marred by conflicts due to the bitter enmity he felt towards his half-brothers, the illegitimate sons of Leonor de Guzmán, and in particular Enrique de Trastámara, who rebelled against him. Pedro also incurred the enmity of France, who supported Enrique, as a result of his repudiation of his French wife. Pedro IV King of Aragon also supported Enrique de Trastámara, declaring war on Castile 8 Aug 1356, a conflict which continued until the Peace of Tener 13/14 May 1361. Enrique invaded Castile with French support in May 1363, capturing Valencia Apr 1364. A further invasion followed in March 1366. Enrique made rapid gains, reducing Pedro's area of control in Castile to Galicia, Cantabria and some areas adjacent to the border with Aragón. Pedro fled to Portugal with his daughters, but after joining English troops led by the Black Prince at Libourne in September 1366 he returned to defeat Enrique at Nájera 3 Apr 1367. Enrique's forces regrouped and invaded yet again end-1367, conquering León 15 Jan 1368. Pedro was weakened by loss of support from England, and Enrique finally defeated Pedro at Montiel in March 1369. Although Pedro escaped after the battle, he was killed soon after by Enrique's commander-in-chief Bertrand Du Guesclin. Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that King Pedro died 23 Mar 1369 at Montiel. 1

  Marriage Information:

Pedro married Blanche DE BOURBON, daughter of Pierre I DE BOURBON, duc de Bourbon, and Isabelle DE VALOIS, on 3 Jun 1353. This marriage ended in divorce. (Blanche DE BOURBON was born in 1339 and died between 14 May and July 1361 in Medina, Sidonia.)


1 Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Medlands: Infante don Pedro de Castilla y León.

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