Cadwallon AP CADFAN King of Gwynedd (c.620-634)
Another name for Cadwallon was Catuvellaunus.
he is best remembered as the King of the Britons who devastated Northumbria, defeating and killing its king, Edwin, prior to his own death in battle against Oswald of Bernicia.
The historian Bede, writing about a century after Cadwallon's death, mentions that Edwin, the most powerful king in Britain, extended his rule to the Isle of Man and Anglesey. The Annales Cambriae says that Cadwallon was besieged at Glannauc (Priestholm, or Puffin Island), a small island off eastern Anglesey, and dates this to 629. Surviving Welsh poetry portrays Cadwallon as a heroic leader against Edwin. It refers to a battle at Digoll (Long Mountain) and mentions that Cadwallon spent time in Ireland before returning to Britain to defeat Edwin.
The Mercian king Penda and Cadwallon together made war against the Northumbrians. A battle was fought at Hatfield Chase on October 12, 633 which ended in the defeat and death of Edwin and his son Osfrith. After this, the Kingdom of Northumbria fell into disarray, divided between its sub-kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia, but the war continued: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "Cadwallon and Penda went and did for the whole land of Northumbria". Bede says that Cadwallon was besieged by the new king of Deira, Osric, "in a strong town"; Cadwallon, however, "sallied out on a sudden with all his forces, by surprise, and destroyed him [Osric] and all his army." After this, according to Bede, Cadwallon ruled over the "provinces of the Northumbrians" for a year, "not like a victorious king, but like a rapacious and bloody tyrant." Furthermore, Bede tells us that Cadwallon, "though he bore the name and professed himself a Christian, was so barbarous in his disposition and behaviour, that he neither spared the female sex, nor the innocent age of children, but with savage cruelty put them to tormenting deaths, ravaging all their country for a long time, and resolving to cut off all the race of the English within the borders of Britain."
The new king of Bernicia, Eanfrith, was also killed by Cadwallon when the former went to him in an attempt to negotiate peace. However, Cadwallon was defeated by an army under Eanfrith's brother, Oswald, at the Battle of Heavenfield, "though he had most numerous forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand". Cadwallon was killed at a place called "Denis's-brook".
Cadwallon married Elen (Alcfrith) Princess of Mercia, daughter of Pybba, King of Mercia (c.593-c.606) and Unknown. (Elen (Alcfrith) Princess of Mercia was born about 600.)